Ottoman Empire fought the WWI on the same side with Germany and ended up signing the Mondros Cease-fire Treaty on 30 October 1918 with the Allied Powers. Taking advantage of the weak Ottoman Government in Istanbul, the Allied Forces started to occupy parts of Anatolia; South Eastern Anatolia by the British and French, Southern Anatolia by the Italians and Istanbul, the capital of the Empire, by all the Allied countries. Supported by the Allied Forces, Greece started to occupy Western Anatolia by landing on Izmir on 15 May 1919. As the Ottoman Government was unable and unwilling to resist these occupations, people started to form resistance groups under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), the legendary hero of the Gallipoli War. Kemal started to tour parts of Anatolia not yet under the control of the Allied Forces, organised "people’s conventions" and elections. The inaugural meeting of the elected representatives was held on 23 April 1920 and Kemal was elected as the Speaker of the House and the Head of the newly formed Government. The main task of the government was to form a regular army to stop the advancing Greek Army. Guns and ammunition were in short supply as the Ottoman Army was under the control of the Allied Forces. The newly formed Turkish Army had its first test in the 1st Battle of Inonu on 10 January 1921 which ended with a victory despite being outnumbered and outgunned by the enemy. This is followed by the victories in the 2nd Battle of Inonu on 31 March 1921 and the Battle of Sakarya, which lasted for 22 days from 23 August to 13 September 1921. These victories forced the Greek Army to change tactics to be defensive rather than offensive.
Due to the recent battles the gun power of the Turkish Army was extremely low and therefore Kemal had to wait for another year for his final offensive on the Greek Army. The "Great Attack" of the Turkish Army started on 26 August 1922 and finished with a victory on 30 August 1922 during which the majority of the Greek Army was annihilated. The final battle on 30 August is also known as the "Battle of the Commander-in-Chief" and 30 August is celebrated as Victory Day in Turkiye and within the Turkish communities throughout the World.
The occupation of Anatolia by the Greek Army has ended on 9 September 1922 when Turkish Army entered Izmir. This resulted the collapse of Lloyd George’s "Greeks in Anatolia" policy and forced him to resign who was replaced by Bonar Law as the new Prime Minister of Great Britain. Lord Kinross, the biographer of Ataturk, said: "The Turk, considered a rebel, after three years of struggle was able to force the collapse of the British Government and oust its prominent Prime Minister. The romantic man faded away in front of the realist man".
Having the upper hand after victory, Ataturk forced the occupying forces of England, France, Italy and Greece to sign the Cease-fire Treaty of Mudanya on 11 October 1922.Benzer Konular: